The claim that "Several Southern Euro groups in the Balkans, the Caucasus and mainland Italy have no SSA markers" needs more clarification. What kind of markers are we referring to here? Autosomal? Uniparental?
I'm talking about all the genetic markers used to determine SSA ancestry in non-African populations. Many Southern European groups, including Croatians, Serbians, Georgians, Armenians, Provencal French, French Basques, Northern Italians, completely lack SSA genetic markers or have them at the same low levels as certain Northern Euro. groups like the British.
What I meant was there are different types of markers showing sub-Saharan admixture. There are the various serological markers, like HbS and HbC. There are HLA markers, on Chromosome 6. There are markers on Chromosome 7, such as those for cystic fibrosis, some of which have been found to be sub-Saharan specific. There are uniparental markers, such as Y-Chr. E3a and mtDNA L haplogroups. There are autosomal markers, such as Duffy null.
The latest autosomal study on southern Europeans shows the northern Italians to have slightly lower levels of sub-Saharan admixture than southern Italians. But the northern Europeans used for comparison purposes have no detectable admixture. Again, this comes from one study, and autosomal genes only were tested. Northern Europeans do have other types of sub-Saharan markers at low levels, such as Y-Chr. and mtDNA markers.
Please do not take these postings as some sort of attempt to reclassify southern Europeans as "Black" or some such nonsense. We have no axe to grind here at TSOR, other than to correct deliberately falsified and intentionally omitted data. That is the main reason for the existence of these threads.
I can remember posters on some message boards wanting to erase any existence of sub-Saharan genetic material in southern Europeans, as if such markers were indicative of some sort of plague. This led to the falsification of much data. For example, a study by Semino, et al. in 1989, showing a 4.4% contribution of sub-Saharan mtDNA markers (haplogroups L1/L2) to an island-wide sample of 90 Sicilians was attempted to be "refuted" by a few posters on message boards by a 2001 Vona, et al. study that mentioned no sub-Saharan mtDNA markers were found in their sample of 49 Sicilians from a single village! There is no way the latter can refute the former. Yet those with agendas circulated this data with the completely fabricated title "Erratum - 0% mtDNA in Sicilians." This sort of thing bothers me because it is a deliberate attempt to falsify and discredit data. Another study by Plaza, et al. (2002) showed an 8.1% contribution of sub-Saharan L mtDNA haplogroups in a sample of 37 southern Italians. This data was falsified in message board posts too, claiming it showed a 2% contribution. In some posts on sub-Saharan admixture in Italians, the study was not cited at all, as if it didn't exist. A 2008 mtDNA study on northern Greeks and Greek Cypriots is listed on Pontikos's site, and the existence of Asian-specific markers in the northern Greek sample is mentioned. However, the fact that sub-Saharan L haplogroups were found in the Greek Cypriot sample is not mentioned at all.
We simply present all data as it is found in various studies. We do not assign people or populations to "racial" categories based on markers found. Biological races, of course, do not exist in humans, and socio-ethnic "races" change constantly in official statistics, and are seen differently depending on who is doing the observing or categorizing.